tv Global 3000 KCSMMHZ December 24, 2011 5:00am-5:30am PST
>>hello and welcome to "global 3000." thanks for joining us. here's what's coming up in today's program -- vertical farming, an idea that is less crazy than it looks, africa on the move, changing morocco's approach to juvenile inmates, and high tech, how modern technology is helping to protect the climate in india. by 2050, the planet's temperature is expected to rise by two degrees celsius on
average, while predictions say the world's population will grow to nine billion. at the same time, climate change is affecting farming, and demand for food is rising steadily. that's why arable land is already hot property among international investors. they know food prices can only continue to go up. time to re-think the way we produce food, says one well- known social entrepreneur. he says that city-dwellers should have something that -- until now -- was reserved for people who live in the country: their own garden! on the terrace, the balcony -- wherever there is space to hang one. curious? me too. >> here at the midtown manhattan farmers' market in new york city, dickson despommier is shopping for fresh vegetables. there are still some shallots to be had. the columbia university professor doesn't hesitate, and starts carefully choosing a few of them.
the locally-grown onions are pretty expensive. >> "these shallots, they were giving them away 20 years ago, they couldn't sell them. there were so many. today they are a gourmet item, you pay a lot of money for this now. if they are available. with the floods they had this year. this is all there is. there should be 5 or 6 of these, there is just one. drought, flooding, frost, hail -- the extreme weather in recent years means growers can never be sure of a harvest. in addition, more and more farming land is being lost, while the world population continues to grow. so how can food supplies be ensured for the long term in heavily-populated areas? the answer could be no longer growing crops outside, in a wide area, but vertically, in high-rises.
several years ago, despommier and students from columbia university further developed the idea of vertical farming. crops can be grown in high-rise greenhouses, in the middle of the city. a 30-story building could feed some 50 thousand people. this is sunworks greenhouse at the manhattan school for children, where the technique can easily be observed -- lettuce grows without soil, in a special nutrient liquid. gregory kiss is an architect in new york city. he designed the greenhouse, and he says it won't be long before vertical farming is commonly practiced. >> these are all techniques for growing plants that are very well known, they are very successful in the market, commercially. it's just adapting them. so it's just small changes that we are proposing. we can take those and simply rearrange them. so that instead of being
horizontally which works well on the roof of a building, we can make them vertical, so that they can fit into the facade of a building. >> like in this office building, which his company designed. he says the idea is especially attractive for countries with nutrient-poor soil, such as abu dhabi or dubai. whether grapevines, apple trees, grains -- or lettuce -- many crops can be planted indoors and even taste good. >> nice green plants, you can eat them all -- i can prove that right away. you see, watch here is the testimonial. just kidding. no, this is delicious. what did we just eat? we just ate romaine lettuce. >> a high-rise farm with 10 square kilometers of space could have a yield as high as the equivalent area on an even surface. the trick is to have many crop levels, spread over many
stories. >> i would make another layer and another layer and another layer. in fact i can make maybe 10 layers out of this hydroponic facility and as a result i can grow a lot more of these plants. >> and growing crops in the city means there are also no transportation costs. but the cost of artificial light for these vertical farms is still very high. yet the professor believes the advantages outweigh the problems. >> cities occupy only 2 to 3 percent of the land mass of this planet, but we use the size of south america to grow food for that 2 percent. what if half of that would be put back into natural growth and allowed to just return to nature? >> that would be good for climate protection. there are already a few vertical farms in the world, but not yet the size of skyscrapers. still, increasing numbers of city governments, architects and agricultural scientists are working on the idea. and dickson despommier will
continue to promote his vision of vertical farming as a solution to the world's hunger problem. >> some 55 thousand inmates are currently in morocco's prisons. around one in ten are teenagers, or even children. there are no separate procedures or facilities for under-age defendants. many youngsters are also sentenced without a trial, or without access to legal counsel. in prison, they then end up in a cell with adult men. as part of our "africa on the move" series, we've teamed up with moroccan reporters. and found some signs that the judiciary there is beginning to re-think the way it treats juveniles. >> "freedom is everything," says mustapha azendour. it's been three years since he left prison, but freedom is still something special to him. he landed in prison at the age of 15.
he spent six years there. he says he didn't even commit a crime. despite his new-found freedom, the painful memories continue to haunt him. >> i was just a child when i was locked up. they took away my freedom. and all of a sudden i was completely alone. far away from my family, from their love and care. even at 15, you still really need your family. >> mustapha is now 24 and studying law in his home city of rabat. these children have also been denied their freedom. many of them used to live on the streets, where they got involved in drugs and violence and fell into crime. all of them have come through hard times. they now live in a state-run child-protection center. these days there are 25 such
centers in morocco. the government initiative is designed to stop more children ending up in prison. this center, near casablanca, is home to 90 boys. chada abounacer is the director of the center. she knows the story of each individual child. >> our most important task is to reintegrate the children back they need to learn our customs, our traditions and our religion. children normally learn from their parents. >> mustapha has come to the center for a visit. here he meets makram. makram is 11 years old and an orphan.
the two become friends. mustapha knows that makram still has a long path ahead of him and will need plenty of help. he's keen to encourage him and lend a listening ear. >> i was in an orphanage. that was where i learned to sing. then i was taken to a home in fez. but the boys there were much older than me. so then i was brought here. >> mustapha isn't the only visitor at the center today. with only 4 professional carers for 90 children, they depend on the help of outside volunteers. otherwise the work would be impossible. florence achard, a psychologist is here for the first time.
"do you prefer math, french or arabic?" she asks. "math," he replies. >> social programs have become more important in morocco in recent years. that's a very good thing. but now the quality needs to improve. >> mustapha and makram have a similar story. and as friends they now share a new hope for the future. as mustapha prepares to go, makram says he wants to sing him a song -- about the sun which shines for everyone. ♪
>> back in rabat, mustapha has come down to the beach, one of his favorite places. i thank god that i have managed to regain control of my life. now i just want to look to the future. i want to do my masters, and a get a license to work as a lawyer. i hope that i will make it. >> but he says whatever happens, he's never going to allow anyone to take his freedom away again. broke out in the former yugoslavia. a soldier back then, he was injured several times in the fighting. today a social entrepreneur, puljic now says, "work is the best way to deal with the trauma of war." and his organization ekomozaik provides some bosnians with an escape from stifling unemployment.
>> brown bears are native to this area, but they're probably getting ready to hibernate, like the bees in their wooden hives. smoke is used to keep the bees from stinging. the beekeepers at ekomozaik's apiary and farm are making sure the insects are ready for winter. zoran puljic, their boss from sarajevo, looks on. he sees the bees as a means to an end. >> i've read a lot about beekeeping and mile told me a lot.
most recently we were together at a trade fair in slovenia, where we talked with specialists from austria. i know a lot in theory, but nothing about the practical aspects, unlike the people here. and here in eastern bosnia, people know how to manage on very little money. the unemployment rate in the region is 68%. >> before ekomozaik i was unemployed for four years. sometimes i worked illegally on construction sites in montenegro and other countries. now i'm in regular employment again. my social security contributions are being paid, and everything's going according to plan.
>> i was registered unemployed for 28 years. this here is a new beginning for me. finally i have work again. i just used to keep my head above water by doing odd jobs. >> the farm has been in operation since 2009. in the autumn and winter, 15 people work here. in the peak season, that number jumps to 70. the farm is owned by a foundation in sarajevo that receives most of its funding from abroad. some of the money was used to build this greenhouse. because warm temperatures can be constantly maintained here, plants can be sown in autumn, producing lettuce and spinach to sell at christmas markets. zoran puljic knows how to help himself. he fled to germany during the
bosnian war, but he refused to live on welfare benefits. he says independence is the most important thing anyone can give people here. >> "we've built up this farm and apiary to create new jobs. we plan to use the profits we generate here to fund more jobs and new projects. >> until now, the sale of honey has brought in most of the profits. this year ekomozaik produced three tons of it. next year the target is 15 tons. zoran puljic is responsible for marketing the products. the 38-year-old entrepreneur is proud he can employ a few people in winter a well -- for instance, in the carpentry shop. the employees here earn more than the national average.
>> the people here earn a net wage of at least 250 euros a month. as their employers, we add another 74 percent to that for social benefits, which are much higher in this region than they are in other parts of the country. still we hope we can pay higher wages next year. >> perhaps they'll be able to get some support for that. the agriculture minister of the bosnian serb republic is here on a visit. another part of zoran puljic's job involves getting regional politicians interested in the business by inviting them to the apiary and farm, giving them guided tours of the premises and a drink or so. the capital sarajevo is far away, and the social entrepreneur needs the support of local leaders to achieve his aims. >> every week, our reporters head out for a different corner of the world to find out how globalization is affecting the
way you live. today we hear from new zealand. >> my name is melda holster, i'm 59 and i live in kaikohe, north island, new zealand. i've got a little souvenir shop and i sell kauri gum and kauri wood and a few bits and pieces of jewelry. the kauri trees grow mostly on the northern island and you might find kauri gum down in the kawerau, but it doesn't grow on the south island. it's the biggest kauri tree in new zealand, it's called "tane mahuta". "tane mahuta" means "the lord of the forest". it's about 2000 years old. it's the biggest tree in the world.
i'm happy when i'm doing my work, like when i'm cleaning the kauri gum, because everyone i do is completely different. i don't have a favorite, i like all food -- as long as it's not spicy. well, i expect to be in good health and keep on working as long as i can. that's what i hope to do. well, next month i'm going to dubai, because i've got a daughter over there. she's a school teacher. so i go and stay with her for a month.
>> many countries in asia have seen a sustained economic boom of gigantic proportions in the last decades. india is just one example. with economic development currently running at a pace of around nine per cent growth, the country's appetite for energy is huge. of course, that means co2 emissions are also increasing dramatically. a german indian climate initiative is now trying to increase energy efficiency in new delhi. here new technologies are making paper mills more efficient. at the same time, the project is exploring the potential of sustainable energy sources. that's good news for both the climate and the economy. >> it's sugar cane harvest time in northern india. diesel engines can be heard everywhere as the push is on to process the crop as soon as possible. yogesh pandey from the german
insulating company kaefer, is making a brief stop. the energy efficiency expert is on his way to a paper mill in muzaffarnagar, three hours from delhi. but his know-how is needed here too. >> their flat belt is loose and it's almost 10 percent loose. if it is properly tight the power transmission efficiency will increase by 10% to 15%. once it's pressed, the sugar cane sap is made into jaggery, an unrefined sugar. here, too, he has suggestions for improvements. >> "this tells us there is incomplete combustion. like there is black smoke coming and this tells us there is more carbon monoxide content." >> for pandey, this production
process represents just one small example of india's enormous energy consumption -- which not only harms the environment, but is also becoming a burden on the economy. the cities in particular are increasingly experiencing electricity blackouts. whether coal, gas or diesel, the demand for energy is simply too great, and it's growing daily, says anant shukla, an energy expert from the german association for international cooperation, the g-i-z. he's just come from a meeting in gurgaon, a business center just outside delhi. >> "if i see that there is no power and we have to depend on the alternate sources, like diesel generators so that scares me coming to gurgaon." >> that's why, at delhi's largest hospital, work is underway in the basement. the international climate initiative has provided one million euros for a combined cooling, heat and power -- or
trigeneration -- plant. anant shukla has been in charge of the german-indian pilot project for two and a half years. >> "this machine is the heart of the trigeneration plant. and this machine converts gas into electricity and the exhaust gases from this engine are sent to the vapor absorption machine and that is turned into the chilled water. so this machine is converting the gas into electricity, chilled water and heat." >> the new plant now uses 80 percent of the energy available in gas, instead of just 25 percent as in the past. so the investment paid off after just two years. >> this gives a showcase study to the indian users and manufacturers and building owners that this is possible, and in turn this gives an opportunity for german companies to introduce themselves to the indian market.
>> back in muzaffarnagar, where the refuse from processing sugar cane winds up in one of 29 paper mills located here. yogesh pandey has arrived at a plant that makes packing paper. the kaefer technician shows his project partner from the giz the progress made in the heat insulation of the rollers. a special insulation material reduces heat loss, saving energy by 5 percent. >> the problem in this kind of project was that earlier, when one of the plants tried to insulate this dryer sidewall it peels off within two or three months.
since we have especially designed insulation material for dynamic conditions it remained intact. >> the new insulating material is specially affixed to keep it intact as long as possible. the pilot project was jointly financed by the kaefer company and by german development aid partners. the insulation is expected to have paid for itself within four months. >> this may be multiplied not only in paper. similar things can be done for the textile, food processing, and other types of industry. the problem with these small and medium scale industries is that they are not aware about this type of system so we hope this may be multiplied to other industrial sectors also. >> this factory will be able to save around 500 tons of coal
each year. but the chairman of the paper industry association in muzaffarnagar is convinced the numbers alone would not have swayed his colleagues. >> we don't have highly technically qualified staff, so we need something to be seen first. so that is why a pilot plant is required. now like we have installed this many of the other industries will copy and they will go for it. >> whether indian companies or their german partners, the transfer of technology has to pay off for all parties involved. only then will they be motivated towards climate protection. >> and that's all we have time for on this edition of "global 3000." but please do get in touch with us -- either at facebook or online -- with your ideas and comments on the reports we bring you every week. for now, thanks for watching,